The collective enterprises assume joint workers means of production and joint economy. Collective communal and patrimonial farms were the first forms of housekeeping in the history of mankind. But also today they remain here and there though in most cases have marginal character.
At first sight function of usefulness of the collective enterprise is similar to function of usefulness of family business and includes as independent variables the cumulative monetary income and cumulative free time of labor collective. Really, on the one hand, each his member is interested in building of the total monetary income as it directly increases its consumption of goods and services. On the other hand, he seeks to have more free time that contradicts the purpose of a of material welfare. In other words, value judgment of value of collective work is inherent in this type of, the monetary income and collective free time are interchanged.
In the collective enterprise there is also one more problem which is not necessary before family economy: differentiation of between members of collective. At leveling the of this problem is not present, but in practice it meets very much as with other things being equal conducts to decrease in labor motivation and falling of production efficiency.
Thus, as well as at family economy, the collective enterprise acts in two forms: the entrepreneur employing labor and labor collective, members of the live due to sale of own labor. This of the considered form defines also specificity of behavior of the similar enterprise.
Collective forms of maintaining S. H. of the enterprises are quite widespread in many countries: Italy, Spain, Portugal, countries of Latin America; more rare but also are available in the USA, Canada, Switzerland, France, Japan.
The agricultural enterprises can be classified by many bases. From the point of view of an organizational of a form they are subdivided into three types: family, and entrepreneur (enterprise.
Thus, for the objective reasons 1065-1165 million hectares are excluded from a market regarding purchase and sale of lands in modern conditions approximately. There are in a of its potential reserve about 540-640 million hectares.
It is necessary to develop all-federal and regional comprehensive target programs of support of an effective of the land market, having defined in them: purposes and problems of development and restructuring of a market zemleoborot; system of actions for its activization and streamlining; mechanisms, terms and stages of realization of the planned actions; ways of a of means for financial security of these programs.