In system of extremely various knowledge of the world surrounding us the important place is taken by philosophy. Having arisen in an extreme antiquity, it passed a centuries-old way of development throughout which there were most various philosophical schools and currents.
The world is uniform and diverse – in the world there is nothing, except a moving matter. There is no other world, except the world of the infinite matter moving in time and space. The material world, the nature is an infinite variety of subjects, bodies, the phenomena and processes. It is the inorganic nature, the organic world, society in all their inexhaustible wealth and variety. The variety of the world consists in qualitative distinction of material things and processes, in variety of forms of the movement of a matter. At the same time a qualitative variety of the world, variety of forms of the material movement exists in unity. The valid unity of the world consists in its materiality. The unity of the world and its variety are in a dialectic ratio, they internally also are inseparably linked among themselves, the uniform matter does not exist differently as in qualitatively diverse forms, all variety of the world is a variety of forms of a uniform matter, uniform material world. All these sciences and practicians convincingly confirm unity of a material world.
The bases of each concrete science, in turn, have rather difficult structure. It is possible to allocate at least three main components of the block of the bases of science: ideals and norms of research, scientific picture of the world and philosophical bases.
In a complex of the most general bases of culture the important place is taken by the generalized images of life and its various parts (the nature, society, the person) in their interrelation, interaction. Having undergone theoretical study, such images are transformed to philosophical doctrine about life – ontology (from the Greek ontos – real and logos – the doctrine. Besides, various forms of the relations of the world and the person – practical, informative and valuable are subject to theoretical judgment; from here and name of appropriate sections of philosophy: a praksiologiya (from the Greek praktikos – active), gnoseology (from the Greek gnoseos – Poznan and an axiology (from the Greek axios – valuable).